kore: this one
sore: that one
are: that one (over there)
dore: which one
ano: that... (over there)\
asoko: over there
kaban: bag (like a purse)
ikura: how much
(o) kudasai: Please give me...
(o) douzo/doozo: Here it is
Doumo/Domo: Thank you
"Kore, sore, are"
When we do not know the name of something, what do we use? We say "this thing" or "that thing" right? Such is the case with kore, sore, and are.
We use kore to refer to something close to you (the speaker)
Ex: Kore wa watashi no enpitsu desu.
This (thing here) is my pencil.
Sore is used to talk about something that is close to the person you are talking to.
Ex: If I was talking with Cheri-sama, I would say "Sore wa watashi no enpitsu desu"
That thing (in front of you) is my pencil.
Are is used to talk about something that is neither close to the speaker nor the listener.
Ex: If Cheri and I were in a classroom and someone had my pencil across the room, I'd say "Are wa watashi no enpitsu desu"
That thing (over there) is my pencil.
To ask about something:
Dore ga anata no enpitsu desu ka?
Which one is your pencil?
Notice how we use "ga" instead of "wa". Question words such a "dore" or "nani" cannot be followed by "wa". Thus, we use "ga".
"Kono, sono, ano, dono"
The same rules apply for this set of words. You use these when you want to be more specific about something.
Ex: Kono kaban wa ikura desu ka?
How much is this bag?
At which point the shop owner would say,
"Sono kaban wa sansen en desu"
That bag is 3000 yen.
And if you were talking about a bag on the other side of counter, well...
Ano kaban wa sanzengohyaku en desu.
That bag over there is 3500 yen.
To ask about something:
Dono kaban ga sanzengohyaku en desu ka?
Which bag is 3500 yen?
As you may have noticed earlier in this lesson, we have started using the particle "no". "No" is a particle that connects two nouns.
Nakamura-san no jitensha wa asoko desu.
Mr. Nakamura's bike is over there.
Kore wa Hiroshi-san no hon desu.
This is Hiroshi's book.
Miya-san no tomodachi wa daigakusei desu.
Miya's friend is a college student.
To form questions in Japanese, all you have to do is add "ka" at the end of the statement. Sometimes you may have to add questions words such as "dore", "dono...", or "nani/nan".
Firipinjin desu ka?
Are you Filipino?
I am Filipino.
Senmon wa nan desu ka?
What is your major?
Senmon wa bijinesu desu.
My major is business.
Noun + ja arimasen
In our last lesson we used the format or noun+desu to talk about our nationalities and ages. To reply in the negative to this form, we use "ja arimasen"
Bunjiro-san chuugokujin desu ka?
Is Bunjiro Chinese?
Bunjiro-san chuugokujin ja arimasen.
Bunjiro is not Chinese.
Senmon wa eigo desu ka?
Is your major English?
Senmon wa eigo ja arimasen. Seeji desu.
My major is not English. It's politics.
1. Shinbun wa ikura desu ka? (How much is the newspaper?)
2. Jitensha wa nisengohyaku en desu ka?
3. Dore ga sengohyaku en desu ka? (which one is 1500 yen?)
1. Mary-san wa nihonjin desu ka?
2. Smith-san wa nansai desu ka? (How old is Mr. Smith?)
3. Think up other ways you can describe what Takeshi and Sue are and are not.